Corporate and Other

Income from operations for Corporate and Other was as follows:

($ in millions)

2014

2013

2012

Corporate headquarters and stewardship

(369)

(372)

(341)

Corporate research and development

(174)

(187)

(192)

Corporate real estate

44

49

50

Other

(70)

(140)

(41)

Total Corporate and Other

(569)

(650)

(524)

In 2014, Corporate headquarters and stewardship costs were at the same level as the previous year. In 2013, Corporate headquarters and stewardship costs increased by $31 million, primarily due to increases in personnel expenses and additional investments in information systems infrastructure.

In 2014, Corporate research and development costs totaled $174 million, lower than in 2013. In 2013, Corporate research and development costs totaled $187 million, marginally lower than the costs reported in 2012.

Corporate real estate primarily includes the income from property rentals and gains from the sale of real estate properties. In 2014, 2013 and 2012, income from operations in Corporate real estate includes gains of $17 million, $23 million and $26 million, respectively, from the sales of real estate property in various countries.

“Other” consists of operational costs of our Global Treasury Operations, operating income or loss in non-core businesses and certain other charges such as costs and penalties associated with legal cases, environmental expenses and impairment charges related to investments. In 2014, “Other” declined primarily due to lower charges in connection with legal compliance cases and lower environmental expenses. In 2013, “Other” included primarily certain legal compliance cases, certain environmental expenses, acquisition-related expenses, the loss on sale of a non-core business and the impairment of certain investments. In 2012, “Other” primarily included the release of a compliance-related provision, partially offset by a provision for certain pension claims in the U.S. and charges from the impairments of our investments in the shares of a public company.