Management overview

During 2014, we continued to deliver power and automation solutions that help our utility, industry, and transport and infrastructure customers meet the challenges and opportunities of a rapidly-changing world. These include significant shifts in the electricity value chain, such as the growth in renewable power generation. Wind and solar power sources are often located far from the centers of power consumption, and they often increase the number of feed-in points into a grid, creating instability and increased grid complexity. Our high-efficiency power transmission and intelligent grid solutions help utilities address these challenges. For example, we won large orders for HVDC power transmission in the United Kingdom and Canada that will link remote renewable energy sources to existing grids. An ABB substation using compact gas-insulated switchgear will integrate power from a solar park in Dubai into the local grid. We also signed a partnership agreement with wind power company Vestas to deliver affordable and clean wind-diesel micro-grid power systems to remote communities in Africa.

Among the new opportunities facing our industrial customers is the possibility to interconnect people, processes, equipment and services, sometimes referred to as “Industry 4.0” or “the Internet of Things”. This trend is having profound impacts on many of our key end markets, such as oil and gas, mining, discrete automation and building automation, where the ability to monitor and control assets and processes in real time and across large geographic spaces is opening new opportunities to increase industrial productivity, reduce environmental impacts and improve the quality of work life for people. In 2014, we won an order from Brazilian mining company Vale to install electrical and automation systems at an iron ore mine to support their development of a sustainable “mine of the future” with truckless transport systems powered through intelligent digital substations. We were also awarded a large contract from Statoil of Norway for telecommunications systems used to remotely monitor and control offshore oil and gas platforms. We also continued to roll out internet-based remote monitoring, preventive maintenance and service solutions for robotics applications, power equipment diagnostics and the control of underground mining ventilation using mobile devices.

Market conditions were mixed in 2014.

Utility customers remained cautious in their capital expenditures in the face of macroeconomic and policy uncertainties, especially in Europe. Nevertheless, several large power transmission projects were awarded during the year and many utilities continued to invest in their power distribution activities.

Industrial demand varied by sector. Many industry customers took a more cautious approach to large capital expenditures in light of ongoing macroeconomic uncertainties. However, operational spending to maintain and improve the performance of existing assets remained generally stable. Demand from the oil and gas sector remained steady as continuing high oil prices supported customer investments through most of the year. The oil price declines seen late in the year resulted in some uncertainty around short-term capital investment trends, however. Mining and metals demand remained at low levels, mainly the result of overcapacity in the industry. General industry customers continued to invest in automation solutions to improve efficiency and productivity.

In the transport and infrastructure sectors, marine demand for specialty vessels continued to grow, mainly the result of demand for oil and gas-related vessels, such as offshore production vessels and liquefied natural gas ships. There was also a steady demand for high efficiency electrical rail equipment.

In this mixed environment, we combined our broad geographic and business scope with the successful execution of profitable growth initiatives across the company to increase orders received in every division except Low Voltage Products, where the disposal of businesses offset order increases in most of the division’s other businesses. The Discrete Automation and Motion division achieved a record level of orders, more than $10 billion, partly the result of growth initiatives to sell packaged industrial solutions that combine, for example, robots, motors and drives for packaging applications in general industry. The Process Automation division tapped growth opportunities in the marine, upstream oil and gas and pulp and paper sectors, which more than offset lower demand in mining. Low Voltage Products orders were supported by increased penetration of the U.S. market through the distribution channels of the Thomas & Betts acquisition it completed in 2012.

In 2014, we maintained the profitability of our Power Products division, despite the continued challenging market environment, through successful cost savings and productivity improvements as well as our ability to be more selective in the orders we take, thanks to our broad product and geographic scope. Our Power Systems division experienced continuing project execution issues which impacted profitability in 2014. We therefore launched a “step change” program to reduce the risk profile of the business and secure higher and more consistent returns. Under the program, we decided to discontinue our future participation in EPC projects in the solar power generation sector. We are also changing our business model in the offshore wind power sector to reduce execution risks and we are adjusting capacity in the business to reflect this repositioning. We continue to focus the ongoing business on projects with lower risk profiles and greater pull-through of our higher value-added content. Our strong positions in fast-growing emerging markets and selected mature markets, our flexible global production base and technological leadership, as well as the operational improvements we continue to make in our businesses, also supported our business in 2014.

Foremost among these improvements was the successful reduction of costs to adapt to changing demand. Savings in 2014 amounted to more than $1 billion and were principally achieved by making better use of global sourcing opportunities and eliminating operational and process inefficiencies. We expanded our cost savings efforts in 2014 to take greater account of improvement opportunities in white-collar productivity, such as streamlining back-office and sales-support activities.

Next Level strategy 2015–2020

In September 2014, ABB laid the foundations to take the company to the next level, with a new strategy aimed at accelerating sustainable value creation to deliver attractive shareholder returns. The Next Level strategy is designed to build on ABB’s strong position in attractive markets. The strategy builds on the three focus areas of profitable growth, relentless execution and business-led collaboration.

To achieve the next level, ABB is targeting profitable growth by shifting its center of gravity through strengthening competitiveness, higher organic growth and lowering risk. We intend to drive organic growth through the PIE concept (penetration, innovation, expansion), further increase competitiveness in areas such as technology, service and software, and reduce intrinsic business risks by, for example, aligning business models more closely with our core competencies. Organic growth will be complemented by incremental strategic acquisitions and partnerships.

Our second strategic focus area is relentless execution. We have been successful in executing our programs to reduce costs and improve customer service. We intend to broaden those efforts by developing a leading operating model across ABB, starting with the areas of white-collar productivity, net working capital management, and quality. For 2015, the completion of the Power Systems “step change” program will remain a high priority. Major Group-wide change management will be implemented through 1,000-day programs that drive and coordinate change across all businesses and regions. The strategic objectives and targets have been explicitly linked to a new performance management and compensation model.

Our third focus area is aimed at simplifying how the organization works together and at achieving a more market-focused organization. To achieve this, as of January 1, 2015, we have streamlined our regional organization – reducing the number of regions from eight to three – with regional management on the Executive Committee to bring us closer to the market. At the same time, roles and responsibilities have been clarified – including giving global business lines undiluted responsibility for their businesses – and processes put in place to strengthen cross-business collaboration.

The Next Level strategy includes the following financial targets: ABB expects to grow operational earnings per share at a 10–15 percent compound annual growth rate and deliver attractive cash return on invested capital in the mid-teens over the period 2015–2020. It targets to grow revenues on a like-for-like basis on average 4–7 percent per year over six years, faster than forecasted GDP and market growth. Over the same time period, ABB plans to steadily increase its profitability, measured in Operational EBITA, within a bandwidth of 11–16 percent while targeting an average free cash flow conversion rate above 90 percent. The new financial targets took effect on January 1, 2015.

We have changed our profitability targets from Operational EBITDA to Operational EBITA. This new measure includes depreciation expense as well as amortization charges that are not related to intangibles recorded in acquisitions which were previously excluded under the Operational EBITDA measure. This change ensures that the costs of capital expenditures invested to drive organic growth will be reflected in the profitability measure on which our businesses are evaluated.

Outlook

The long-term demand outlook in our three major customer sectors – utilities, industry, and transport and infrastructure – remains clearly positive. Key drivers are the big shift in the electricity value chain, industrial productivity improvements and Industry 4.0, as well as rapid urbanization and the need for energy efficiency in transport and infrastructure.

We are well-positioned to tap these opportunities for long-term profitable growth, with our strong market presence, broad geographic and business scope, technology leadership and financial strength.

In the short term, macroeconomic and geopolitical developments are signaling a mixed picture with increased uncertainty. Some macroeconomic signs in the U.S. remain positive and growth in China is expected to continue. At the same time, the market remains impacted by slow growth in Europe and geopolitical tensions in various parts of the world.

Oil prices and foreign exchange effects

Current oil prices will influence customer operating and capital expenditures along the oil and gas value chain, and influence spending by many other of our customer segments and government spending in different ways. Government spending on energy subsidies may be reallocated to other infrastructure development and certain customer segments will benefit from lower energy costs. However, the current oil price will have a dampening effect on the oil and gas value chain, mainly in the upstream sector.

Currency volatility has increased over the last 12 months, including the weakening of the Euro against the U.S. dollar and Swiss franc. Changes in foreign exchange rates have two effects on our financial results, translational and structural. Translational impacts result from converting local-currency financial information from ABB companies around the world into U.S. dollars at average exchange rates for the purpose of reporting results in U.S. dollars. If exchange rates stay around the current levels, we expect a negative translation effect in 2015.

Structural effects are related to the export of products and services from one currency zone into another. Our well-balanced local operations (including sourcing) in all key markets mean these structural effects have a limited impact. Further, our policy to actively hedge all significant foreign exchange exposures means these effects are largely mitigated in the short to medium term.