Liquidity and capital resources

Principal sources of funding

We meet our liquidity needs principally using cash from operations, proceeds from the issuance of debt instruments (bonds and commercial paper), and short-term bank borrowings.

During 2014, 2013 and 2012, our financial position was strengthened by the positive cash flow from operating activities of $3,845 million, $3,653 million and $3,779 million, respectively.

Our net debt is shown in the table below:

December 31, ($ in millions)



Cash and equivalents



Marketable securities and short-term investments



Short-term debt and current maturities of long-term debt



Long-term debt



Net debt (defined as the sum of the above lines)



Net debt at December 31, 2014, decreased $615 million compared to December 31, 2013, as cash flows from operating activities during 2014 of $3,845 million and proceeds from sales of businesses and equity-accounted companies (net of cash disposed and transaction costs) of $1,110 million more than offset the cash outflows for the payment of dividends ($1,973 million), purchases of property, plant and equipment and intangible assets ($1,026 million) and amounts paid to purchase treasury stock ($1,003 million). See “Financial Position”, “Investing activities” and “Financing activities” for further details.

Our Group Treasury Operations is responsible for providing a range of treasury management services to our group companies, including investing cash in excess of current business requirements. At December 31, 2014 and 2013, the proportion of our aggregate “Cash and equivalents” and “Marketable securities and short-term investments” managed by our Group Treasury Operations amounted to approximately 60 percent and 55 percent, respectively.

Throughout 2014 and 2013, the investment strategy for cash (in excess of current business requirements) has generally been to invest in short-term time deposits with maturities of less than 3 months, supplemented at times by investments in corporate commercial paper, AAA-rated money market liquidity funds, and in some cases, government securities. During 2014, we also placed limited funds in connection with reverse repurchase agreements and invested in floating-rate notes. With ongoing credit risk concerns in the eurozone economic area, we restrict our bank exposures in the eurozone area. We continue to also restrict the counterparties with whom we are prepared to place cash and we limit our deposits with certain banks in the eurozone. We actively monitor credit risk in our investment portfolio and hedging activities. Credit risk exposures are controlled in accordance with policies approved by our senior management to identify, measure, monitor and control credit risks. We closely monitor developments in the credit markets and make appropriate changes to our investment policy as deemed necessary. The rating criteria we require for our counterparts have remained unchanged during 2014 (compared to 2013) as follows – a minimum rating of A/A2 for our banking counterparts, while the minimum required rating for investments in short-term corporate paper is A-1/P-1. In addition to rating criteria, we have specific investment parameters and approved instruments as well as restricting the types of investments we make. These parameters are closely monitored on an ongoing basis and amended as we consider necessary.

We believe the cash flows generated from our business, supplemented, when necessary, through access to the capital markets (including short-term commercial paper) and our credit facilities are sufficient to support business operations, capital expenditures, business acquisitions, the payment of dividends to shareholders and contributions to pension plans. Due to the nature of our operations, our cash flow from operations generally tends to be weaker in the first half of the year than in the second half of the year. Consequently, we believe that our ability to obtain funding from these sources will continue to provide the cash flows necessary to satisfy our working capital and capital expenditure requirements, as well as meet our debt repayments and other financial commitments for the next 12 months. See “Disclosures about contractual obligations and commitments”.

Debt and interest rates

Total outstanding debt was as follows:

December 31, ($ in millions)



Short-term debt and current maturities of long-term debt



Long-term debt:






Other long-term debt



Total debt



The decrease in short-term debt in 2014 was primarily due to repayments of borrowings in various countries partially offset by an increase in issued commercial paper ($120 million outstanding at December 31, 2014, compared to $100 million outstanding at December 31, 2013).

Our debt has been obtained in a range of currencies and maturities and on various interest rate terms. We use derivatives to manage the interest rate exposure arising on certain of our debt obligations. For example, we use interest rate swaps to effectively convert fixed rate debt into floating rate liabilities. After considering the effects of interest rate swaps, the effective average interest rate on our floating rate long-term debt (including current maturities) of $2,318 million and our fixed rate long-term debt (including current maturities) of $5,074 million was 1.1 percent and 3.2 percent, respectively. This compares with an effective rate of 1.2 percent for floating rate long-term debt of $2,211 million and 3.1 percent for fixed-rate long-term debt of $5,389 million at December 31, 2013.

For a discussion of our use of derivatives to modify the interest characteristics of certain of our individual bond issuances, see “Note 12 Debt” to our Consolidated Financial Statements.

Credit facility

During 2014, we replaced our $2 billion multicurrency revolving credit facility, maturing in 2015, with a new $2 billion revolving multicurrency credit facility, maturing in 2019. In 2015 and 2016, we have the option to extend the maturity of the new facility to 2020 and 2021, respectively.

No amount was drawn under either of the committed credit facilities at December 31, 2014 and 2013. The replacement facility is for general corporate purposes. The facility contains cross-default clauses whereby an event of default would occur if we were to default on indebtedness, as defined in the facility, at or above a specified threshold.

The credit facility does not contain financial covenants that would restrict our ability to pay dividends or raise additional funds in the capital markets. For further details of the credit facility, see “Note 12 Debt” to our Consolidated Financial Statements.

Commercial paper

At December 31, 2014, we had in place two commercial paper programs:

  • a $2 billion commercial paper program for the private placement of U.S. dollar-denominated commercial paper in the United States, and
  • a $2 billion Euro-commercial paper program for the issuance of commercial paper in a variety of currencies (which replaced the previous $1 billion Euro-commercial paper program in February 2014)

At December 31, 2014, $120 million was outstanding under the $2 billion program in the United States, compared to $100 million outstanding at December 31, 2013.

No amount was outstanding under the $2 billion Euro-commercial paper program at December 31, 2014. No amounts were outstanding at December 31, 2013 either under our previous $1 billion Euro-commercial paper program or under the 5 billion Swedish krona program that was terminated in 2014.

European program for the issuance of debt

The European program for the issuance of debt allows the issuance of up to (the equivalent of) $8 billion in certain debt instruments. The terms of the program do not obligate any third party to extend credit to us and the terms and possibility of issuing any debt under the program are determined with respect to, and as of the date of issuance of, each debt instrument. At December 31, 2014, it was more than 12 months since the program had been updated. New bonds could be issued under the program but cannot be listed without us formally updating the program. At December 31, 2014 and 2013, one bond (principal amount of EUR 1,250 million and due in 2019) having a carrying amount of $1,518 million and $1,722 million, respectively, was outstanding under this program.

Australian program for the issuance of debt

During 2012, we set up a program for the issuance of up to AUD 1 billion (equivalent to approximately $819 million, using December 31, 2014 exchange rates) of medium-term notes and other debt instruments. The terms of the program do not obligate any third party to extend credit to us and the terms and possibility of issuing any debt under the program are determined with respect to, and as of the date of issuance of, each debt instrument. At both December 31, 2014 and 2013, one bond, having a principal amount of AUD 400 million and maturing in 2017, was outstanding under the program. The carrying amount of the bond at December 31, 2014 and 2013 was $335 million and $353 million, respectively.

Credit ratings

Credit ratings are assessments by the rating agencies of the credit risk associated with ABB and are based on information provided by us or other sources that the rating agencies consider reliable. Higher ratings generally result in lower borrowing costs and increased access to capital markets. Our ratings are of “investment grade” which is defined as Baa3 (or above) from Moody’s and BBB− (or above) from Standard & Poor’s.

At both December 31, 2014 and 2013, our long-term debt was rated A2 by Moody’s and A by Standard & Poor’s.

Limitations on transfers of funds

Currency and other local regulatory limitations related to the transfer of funds exist in a number of countries where we operate, including: Algeria, Argentina, Chile, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Korea, Malaysia, Peru, Russia, South Africa, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey and to a certain extent, China. Funds, other than regular dividends, fees or loan repayments, cannot be readily transferred offshore from these countries and are therefore deposited and used for working capital needs in those countries. In addition, there are certain countries where, for tax reasons, it is not considered optimal to transfer the cash offshore. As a consequence, these funds are not available within our Group Treasury Operations to meet short-term cash obligations outside the relevant country. The above described funds are reported as cash in our Consolidated Balance Sheets, but we do not consider these funds immediately available for the repayment of debt outside the respective countries where the cash is situated, including those described above. At December 31, 2014 and 2013, the balance of “Cash and equivalents” and “Marketable securities and other short-term investments” under such limitations (either regulatory or sub-optimal from a tax perspective) totaled approximately $1,498 million and $1,785 million, respectively.

During 2014, we continued to direct our subsidiaries in countries with restrictions to place such cash with our core banks or investment grade banks, in order to minimize credit risk on such cash positions. We continue to closely monitor the situation to ensure bank counterparty risks are minimized.